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中国石化长炼打开欧洲涂料原料市场

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 人口正在迁移 哪些城市能成开发商避风港 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

至2020年中国LED通用照明需求将达220亿美元

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

3.Flying Bicycles
总部位于纽约的世界品牌实验室编纂并于上周一发布了《2016世界品牌500强》榜单,苹果公司夺得了第一名的宝座。
Gymnastics;Trampoline;Artistic gymnastics;Rhythmic gymnastics
克普克写道,分析师们常常“认为新兴市场危机易发性的根源在于制度薄弱,这使得这些国家易受经济、金融不稳定的影响。”
“有1400人出境去参加圣战,加入叙利亚和伊拉克境内的恐怖主义组织。” Valls告诉BFMTV。
强化水、土壤污染防治。
A lighthearted rom-com starring Adam Sandler and Drew Barrymore is the last thing you'd expect to mirror real life, but this comedy was in fact partially based on a true story. Sandler plays a veterinarian who falls in love with Barrymore, an amnesiac whose memory resets at the beginning of each day. He learns that Barrymore has replayed the same day over and over again since a car crash left her with a traumatic brain injury. Upset by the lie she has been living, Sandler's character makes a series of videos that explain her accident and her life for her to watch each morning.

In the field of the best 85 business schools in Europe, HEC Paris remains in second place behind LBS, while Insead, the international school based in Fontainebleau, France, climbs two places to third.
n. 文件,公文,文档
adj. 不合法的,非法的
第一次跻身品牌价值100强的是法国时尚品牌迪奥和硅谷的汽车制造商特斯拉汽车公司,他们分别位列第89名和第100名。
7. 《出局:禁止接触》(Out 1: Noli Me Tangere),导演:雅克·里维特(Jacques Rivette)。

Footnotes

  • 顺德家具出口连续7个月增长 欧盟为第一贸易伙伴
  • 福布斯全球2000强是一个囊括全球最大最具有实力的上市公司的综合榜单,我们的衡量指标为营收、利润、资产和市场价值。

Most of these islands were owned by corporations planning tourism, but also by individuals who built private clubhouses to entertain friends.
阿里巴巴旗下品牌淘宝位居第二,品牌价值429亿美元,超过了中国移动、百度和中国工商银行。
China purchased 141,000 industrial robots in 2017, up 58.1% year-on-year, but foreign brands accounted for nearly three quarters of that, showing that the gap is still widening between Chinese robot makers and their foreign peers.
结果那些要求进行设身处地和角色扮演的人在随后的提问环节表现最好。准确地说,这些运用设身处地法进行记忆的人记单词的效率是使用其他记忆方式的人的三倍。虽然主持这项实验的科学家们研究的是设身处地法对患有记忆力损伤的人恢复记忆的影响,但无论人们有没有记忆损伤,皆可能受益于此。如果你想记住朋友在哪买了一双鞋子,不妨就试着想象走进店里买鞋的是自己。
We will accelerate the development of emerging industries.
WOLF HALL (PBS, April 5) In the season’s most promising piece of casting, Damian Lewis (“Homeland”) will play Henry VIII and the two-time Tony Award winner Mark Rylance will play Thomas Cromwell in this “Masterpiece” adaptation of the popular Hilary Mantel historical novels.

新房质量“强制险”值得探索

References

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